A discogram has two parts. First, a needle is inserted into the problem disc, and saline is injected into the disc to create pressure inside the disc. The human vertebral disc is a unique structure in the spine that bears weight and allows motion. It is made of a central portion (the nucleus pulposus) which is surrounded by layers of tissue (the annulus fibrosis). The disc helps the spine support the body and allows movement between the vertebra. In a normal disc, there are nerves only in the outermost layers of the annulus fibrosis. The layers of the annulus may tear as a result of overloading the spine or lifting in an awkward position. These tears may trigger a series of events that can cause pain. As the disc tries to heal (which is a slow process), new nerve endings may form in the injured area. The nucleus pulposus of the disc contains a lot of water, which lets it bear weight and transfer load much like pressing on a water balloon. The contents of the nucleus of an injured disc may leak out into the outer layers or all the way through those layers to the nearby nerve roots exiting from the cauda equina (the lower end of the spinal cord). The nucleus contains chemicals that are very irritating to nerve tissue. As this fluid leaks, it may come in contact with the sensitive nerve endings in the outer disc and cause pain. These chemicals may also make the nerve endings more sensitive, so movement that was not painful in a normal disc may cause pain in an injured disc. The irritating fluid from the nucleus may leak out of the disc and onto the nerve roots, producing pain. These events in the disc may also trigger disc degeneration.
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Post-herpetic Neuralgia or Pain after Shingles: A common procedure known as Selective Transforaminal Nerve Block works powerfully to reduce inflammation and control pain
An intra-articular infiltration or injection is a form of treatment that involves injecting powerful anti-inflammatory corticosteroids and analgesic into a joint under Fluoroscopy Guided-Image Technology . This type of injection is routinely performed on patients suffering from a variety of conditions that cause inflammation in the joints of the body. Intraarticular steroid injections have been used on patients since 1951. Since then, they have been the subject of numerous medical studies that have revealed their benefits in treating pain and inflammation.
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